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The purpose of this report is to assist the user in determining the status of Agency-Specific documents and in identifying a superseded document. A list of UFCs and their current status is also provided. UFC are distributed only in electronic media and are effective upon issuance. UFCs that have been unified for use by all participating agencies have no alphabetical letter at the end of the document number. UFCs that are agency-specific have an alphabetical letter at the end of the document. A combination of two letters indicates that the document is used by two agencies.

UFCs are divided into three categories: active, cancelled and inactive. The replacement document is technically equivalent or superior to the superseded document and may be used as a replacement. The following document list indicates what document supersedes the cancelled document.

TM 5-809-10

The following document list indicates if the document is cancelled without replacement. The content and references in these documents are out-of-date and must not be used without verifying accuracy. The requirements have primarily been incorporated into UFC as they are updated. Instructions to construction contractors and designers performing design-buid Army contracts. Site visits. The purposes quired. This detail is needed to provide adequate of these visits by the designer are: lateral support to corners of walls during and after 1 To see that the design intent is being construction.

One longitudinal wire will be special features of the design and critical construc- installed in each mortar bed. This normally requires tion items. Truss type joint reinforcement should not be improvements. Factory fabricated intersections and corners 4 To open the lines of communication be- are required. Longitudinal wires should be properly tween the designer and field personnel so that located within mortar beds to provide needed problems and concerns will be more freely dis- corrosion protection. Although it is recognized that the degree of 8 insulation panels used in cavity wall con- engineering support during construction is under struction must be in close contact at all pane] edges continual time and cost constraints, the need and and must be tightly adhered to the backup wythe to value of site visits by the designer has been clearly achieve the assumed U-value.

Every effort to 9 Flashing must be installed so that cells to implement a program of site visits during critical be grouted are not blocked.


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Thus, flashing that is phases of masonry construction should be made. Note that the mortar bed. Properly sealed joints are especially critical excellent short checklist both for the field quality in wall systems with steel stud backup.

Technical Manuals (TM) | WBDG - Whole Building Design Guide

Partial panel assurance staff and for the designer during routine length flashing for lintels, etc. This chapter is an overview of sequence are in the degree Fahrenheit range. Subsequent to molding, concerned with the properties of clay and concrete the units are dried and fired as in the wire-cut masonry units which affect structural design.

A process. Size and shape. Clay masonry units are avail- and methods of cleaning of efflorescence is also able in a wide variety of shapes, sizes and coring included. Figures 3-la through e represent clay units Clay masonry units.


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Clay masonry units primarily or more of the gross area. Figure f illustrates a consists of clay, shale or similar naturally occurring hollow unit. The width, W, of solid clay units earthy substances, water and additives. Hollow clay units b. Manufacturing processes.

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The majority of the whose net area is less than 75 percent of the gross solid and hollow clay masonry units currently used area, as shown in figures f have been produced in the U. The configurations. The shape shown has a length equal basic components of the process are-preparation of to 11e inches and a height equal to 3e inches.


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  8. Visual properties. The color of clay masonry using steel wire; and controlled firing in which the units by the chemical composition, surface treat- units are heated to the early stage of incipient ment, burning intensity, and methods of burning vitrification. Vitrification occurs when a material control. These factors also affect the strength of changes to a glassy substance by heat and fusion.

    The choice of color for aesthetic purposes Peak temperatures attained during the firing. Various 1 Durability. Durability primarily refers to types of surface texturing, which is formed by steel the ability of a masonry unit to withstand environ- wire cutting parallel to the direction of extrusion, mental conditions, such as freeze-thaw action. Clay may be created on the face surfaces of clay units.

    Material properties. Material properties of and No Weathering, NW. Durability, or weather clay masonry units which can affect their structural resistance classification, is evaluated in terms of performance include: durability, initial rate of compressive strength and water absorption as pre- absorption, compressive strength, flexural strength, sented in table Clay masonry the firing temperature and the ambient moisture units have a tendency to draw water from mortar or conditions.

    The initial expansion is irreversible. This phenomenon is termed the initial rate of moisture content may occur. Clay unit masonry is absorption, IRA, or suction and has been linked to also subject to expansion and contraction due to structural characteristics of masonry such as the temperature variations.

    The quality of bond between mortar and masonry unit is a Concrete masonry units. Concrete masonry function of properties of each. However, for many units are made from lightweight or normal weight often used mortar mixes an IRA value in the aggregates, or both, to obtain three classes of grams per 30 square inches per minute range has masonry units; normal weight, medium weight, and been observed to be most desirable. Absorption test lightweight. C 90 are the same for all classes. Normal weight 3 Compressive strength. Compressive units are generally used where lightweight strength of clay masonry units is measured by aggregate is not readily available and the cost of loading specimens to failure in a direction obtaining the lightweight aggregate does not offset consistent with the direction of service loading in the advantages of lightweight units.

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    Compressive strength of of lightweight units include ease of handling and units provides a basis for assuming the compressive hauling, increased productivity, reduced dead strength of the masonry assemblage. Flexural strength, or proved absorption of transmitted sound, and higher modulus of rupture, determined in accordance with fire resistance. One disadvantage of lightweight ASTM C 67, is basically a measure of the tensile units is that they are more porous. This makes them strength of a masonry unit. It is somewhat corre- more difficult to paint or seal as required for lated to unit compressive strength.

    Clay masonry units a. Concrete masonry units primarily immediately after manufacture are extremely dry consist of portland cement or blended cement, and expand due to absorption of moisture from the aggregate and water. The magnitude of the initial expansion lans as well as air entraining agents may be used. Manufacturing process. Concrete masonry inches, or 3e inches wide.

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    Nominal widths up to units are cast using no slump concrete. The mixture 16 inches are also available in many areas. The is placed into molds and vibrated under pressure for walls of most hollow concrete units taper or are a specified time to obtain compaction. Higher flared and thicker on one bed surface of the unit strength units can be obtained by subjecting the than the other to enable release from the mold material to longer vibration and compaction during production.

    Hence, the net concrete cross- periods.

    M2.1 Masonry Wall Design

    The units are removed from the molds and sectional area may be greater on the top of the unit may be cured under normal atmospheric conditions, than the bottom. Concrete masonry units are bearing concrete masonry units. Color other than the nor- shown in figure They may be classified as mal concrete gray may be obtained for concrete hollow or solid. A having a net area not less than 75 percent of the variety of surface effects are possible including gross area.